The Dozenal Society of America

The Society is a voluntary nonprofit educational corporation, organized for the conduct of research and education of the public in the use of base twelve in calculations, mathematics, weights and measures, and other branches of pure and applied science.

Duodecimal Bulletin:

About the Bulletin
Archive Index
Pictorial Synopses
About the Archive


One of the foremost considerations among dozenalists is how to symbolize the digits of base twelve, and how to pronounce dozenal numbers. It seems each dozenalist arrives at his or her own conclusions. The Dozenal Society of America does not endorse any particular symbols for the digits ten and eleven. For uniformity in publications we use Dwiggins dek (here in HTML we use X) for ten and his el (here in HTML we use E) for eleven. The numbers commonly called “ten”, “eleven” and “twelve” are pronounced “dek”, “el” and “dough” in the duodecimal system.

Simply click the thumbnail (the icon) on the left to download the full article in PDF form. Click the Newhall number for articles extracted from the Duodecimal Bulletin or other dozenal publications to download the entire archived original issue. Example: Prof. Gene Zirkel’s “Symbols, Symbols, !@#$%¢&*(!? Symbols”, which begins in Vol. 27; No. 2 at p. 10; has a Newhall number of db27210.

Visit the Duodecimal Bulletin Digital Archive

symbology synopsis

“The DSA Symbology Synopsis”
Continually updated, last update January 2011.
This 11" × 17" landscape-format poster summarizes numerals devised for dozenal, hexadecimal, and other bases. The DSA Symbology Synopsis brings together all symbols surveyed by Duodecimal Bulletin Vol. 4X; No. 2 and Vol. 4E; No. 1, as well as those submitted by readers and gleaned subsequently on the internet.


“How Do You Pronounce Dozenals?”
Prof. Gene Zirkel, 2011, db4E20X.
A new take on the do-mo-gro system of dozenal nomenclature which was first published in the very first issue of the Duodecimal Bulletin.


“The DozensOnline Forum Symbols Debate”
Michael Thomas De Vlieger, 2010, db4E120.
The Duodecimal Bulletin visits the DSGB’s DozensOnline web forum for a look at their discussion of numerals.


“A Numeral Toolbox”
Michael Thomas De Vlieger, 2010, db4E111.
This article, part II of a two-issue exploration of all dozenal symbologies, suggests a few simple methods of designing numerals for transdecimal number bases. Studies of “Separate Identity’ symbologies reveals relationships among their numeral symbols. The symbologies of large number bases are also examined.


“Dozenal Mathematical Displays Using LaTeX”
Donald P. Goodman, III, 2010, db4X21X.
A description of Mr. Goodman’s duodecimal extension of the LaTeX markup system, a layer of macros designed by L. Lamport which runs atop the TeX typesetting engine designed by Donald E. Knuth.


“Featured Figures: Symbology Overview”
Editor, 2010, db4X213.
This edition of Featured Figures summarizes many of the dozenal and hexadecimal numeral systems known to the DSA at the time, inspired by the DSGB’s Duodecimal Newscast articles at nr02110 and nr03203


“Symbology Overview”
Editorial, 2010, db4X211.
The Duodecimal Bulletin examines all dozenal numeral proposals known at the time in this two-part editorial. Part I looks into “Least Change” proposals (as classified by R. Beard.) See db4E111 above for Part II.


Editorial, 2010, db4X209.
This editorial introduces the Duodecimal Bulletin’s “Symbology Issues”, a two-issue exploration of dozenal numerals produced in 2010.


“The Opposed Principles”, (Reprint)
Ralph Beard, 1945, db4X205.
The first Editor of the Duodecimal Bulletin outlines two basic approaches to the design of numerals, the “Least Change” and the “Separate Identity”. This article serves as the basis for the Symbology Issues of 2010 and the Dozenal Society of America’ policy on numerals.


“A Dozenal Nomenclature”
Owen B. Clayton, Ph.D., 2009, db4X109.
Dr. Clayton briefly outlines his approach on how to name and symbolize dozenal numbers.


“A Dozenal Nomenclature”
Editorial, 2008, db49207.
This editorial announces the Duodecimal Bulletin’s return to the “classic” Dwiggins numerals, along with a brief narrative of the use of the “Bell” numerals (* and #), and the Pitman numerals of the DSGB.


“Symbols, Symbols, !@#$%¢&*(!? Symbols”
Prof. Gene Zirkel, 1982, db27210.
Prof. Zirkel recounts a meeting with the DSGB’s Arthur Whillock in which dozenal numerals were discussed, and voices his espousal of the “Bell” numerals (* and #) inspired by the American telephone monopoly’s telephone dials. The Bell numerals were used in print in the Duodecimal Bulletin between 1974 and mid 2008.

Visit the Duodecimal Bulletin Digital Archive. Revisit this page from time to time to read new or remastered legacy articles on the symbology and nomenclature proposals for base twelve and other number bases.

This page created Tuesday 25 January 2011.